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CvS2 Fireball Properties
Fireballs and super fireballs in Capcom vs SNK 2 fall into two categories - moving and stationary. When a moving fireball collides with another moving fireball, the two immediately trade off hits and the one with the largest number of hits continues on, having lost as many hits as the fireball it collided with. So for example, if Sagat and Akuma each throw a lvl3 fireball at one another, Akuma's will win out but only retain two of its eight hits, since Sagat's lvl3 fireball has six hits. This happens because moving fireballs go through their hits almost instantaneously - as soon as the fireball hits once, it immediately goes into its second hit and thus does all of its hits very rapidly.
In contrast, stationary fireballs have a much slower hit rate which follows a rhythm that varies greatly from one to the next. When a stationary fireball comes into contact with the same stationary fireball (in a mirror match), the two trade hits one by one until both are nullified. However, if a stationary fireball comes into contact with a different stationary fireball, since the hit rates of the two are different, the fireballs have slight hit windows between collisions that can hurt the opponent if the opponent gets caught in one. So while two Guiles attacking each other with overlapping Sonic Hurricanes both come out unharmed, Guile's Sonic Hurricane performed simultaneously with Joe's Double Cyclone Upper results in both of them getting hit by each others' supers once they run out of invincible frames.
Now an interesting thing happens when a moving projectile comes into contact with a stationary projectile. The moving projectile collides with individual hits of the stationary projectile, and since the stationary projectile allows varying gaps in time between its hits, the moving projectile is not immediately nullified as it would be if it collided with another moving projectile with an equal or greater number of hits. Since the moving projectile continues traveling so long as it is not completely nullified, it may pass completely through the stationary projectile and connect with the opponent if it moves fast enough and/or has enough hits. For example, Akuma's eight-hit lvl3 fireball will pass through Guile's Sonic Hurricane and connect with three to five of its hits intact because it has so many hits to begin with. Nakoruru's five-hit lvl3 fireball will also pass through Guile's Sonic Hurricane and usually connect with three of its hits. Nakoruru's lvl3 fireball loses only two of its hits and Akuma's lvl3 fireball loses three to five of its hits because Nakoruru's travels much faster and thus has to contend with far fewer Sonic Hurricane hits than Akuma's lvl3 fireball.
There is a group of special moves and supers in CvS2 that are not fireballs themselves but can contend with them in one of two ways. Accordingly, they fall into two groups: fireball nullifiers and fireball reflectors. Fireball reflectors are fairly rare in CvS2, but there are a large number of fireball nullifiers. Also, since all of the moves in these categories have hit potentials of at least one, the distinction between a fireball nullifier and a stationary fireball is often a subjective one based on how the move is used in actual combat. All fireball nullifiers and reflectors nullify at least one hit of any fireball, even a super fireball. If used against non-super fireballs, fireball reflectors have the ability to create another fireball going in the opposite direction and with opposite allegiance to replace the one nullified/absorbed. It is worth noting that the hit potential of a fireball nullifier or fireball reflector is not related to the number of hits of a fireball it can negate. For example, M.Bison's Psycho Punish hits three to five times depending on the button used, but can only negate one fireball hit. Also, using up a fireball nullifier's negation property does not necessarily take away its hitting potential. Rugal's Dark Smash never hits more than once, but retains its hitting potential if it goes through a one-hit fireball.
Now, there are a few special cases to be considered. First, the Akuma-Rugal exception. Although both of these characters have three-hit non-super fireballs, only Rugal's is considered a true three-hit fireball with respect to fireball nullification rules. However, Rugal's is still considered a non-super fireball and does get reflected by all fireball reflectors. Second, the Chang-Rolento-Yun exception. Chang's Choi Assists (including the Choi Super) and Rolento's Stinger are all projectiles that can nullify fireballs, but can also be nullified by non-fireball attacks. Chang's Choi Assists and Yun's Yang Super can also be negated by hitting Chang/Yun themselves during the execution of these moves. None of these projectiles are affected by the fireball nullification properties of nullifiers, but they are can still be negated by the hit potentials that all fireball nullifiers possess. None of these projectiles can be reflected. Also, nullifying these projectiles with a non-fireball move does not use up the hit potential of the move. For example, Guile can nullify Rolento's Stinger and hit him with a single well-timed low fierce. Third, there are three characters in the game (Chang, Eagle, and Kyo) that have a special move with the Autoguard property. During the Autoguard phase of these moves, they can nullify any number of non-super fireballs but have no effect on super fireballs. Unlike fireball nullifiers and fireball reflectors, the Autoguard phase of each of these moves has no hit potential. And finally, E.Honda's Super Headbutt has the ability to negate fireballs of all types during its hitting phases without a limit on the number of fireball hits it can nullify. However, Honda is flying forward during this move, and since not even moving fireballs get all of their hits out instanteously, Honda's Onimusou is not guaranteed to nullify every hit of every projectile it passes through. This, added to the fact that there are non-hitting gaps in the Onimusou super, means that Honda is not 100% safe from fireballs during this super, especially multi-hitting stationary fireballs.
The following list has been thoroughly tested and to my knowledge, is complete. If you find anything that was left out or any errors that were overlooked, please feel free to contact me with your findings.
Fireball Nullifiers and Reflectors